Neonatal jaundice is a common disease condition in new-borns. Due to the change in daily life people’s lifestyles are changing day by day and which affects new-born children as well. There are so many situations in which parents’ diseases are inherited by the children. An elevated serum bilirubin level is called hyperbilirubinemia. Permanent neurological damage can be result because of the deposition of bilirubin in the brain cells. Bilirubin is generated by the break down of red blood cells by various steps. When red blood cells are broken down by macrophages, and they release haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is break in to two i.e. heme and globin. Heme then metabolized to become bilirubin unconjugated. Most conjugated bilirubin is excreted through stools. However, some are reverted back to the unconjugated form and reabsorbed into the bloodstream. Jaundice starts at the head and then spreads to the chest, abdomen, arms, legs, and feet.
ASSESSMENT OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE
How can identify neonatal jaundice in new-borns? The main assessments are elevated serum bilirubin levels, enlarged liver, poor muscle tone, lethargy, and poor sucking reflex.
CAUSES OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE
The causes of neonatal jaundice are delayed removal of bilirubin or immature liver. Neonatal jaundice is common in infants of a diabetic mother, preterm babies, ABO incompatibility, RH incompatibility, and sepsis babies.
MANAGEMENT OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE
1. Monitor serum bilirubin levels in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is generated during the breakdown of red cells.
2. Assess the skin and sclera of the newborn. Press a finger over a bony area or tip of the baby’s nose.
3. Maintain newborn hydration through IVF or oral feeding.
4. Feed the newborn 2 to 3 hourly which helps for excretion of bilirubin through the stool.
5. Phototherapy treatment. Expose the newborn skin as possible. Cover the newborn’s genital area and monitor the genital area for skin breakdown or irritation. Moreover, cover the eyes with eye bad and make sure eyelids are closed properly while using eye pads. Remove the eye pad during feeding time and check the eyes for infection. Monitor the newborn’s skin color when the phototherapy light is turned off. Check the temperature during phototherapy treatment. Change the position of the newborn every 2 hours. Turn off the phototherapy lights before taking blood for serum bilirubin.
6. Report to the doctor, if you see any signs of jaundice in the first 24 hours of life. Consulting the doctor helps to manage jaundice without causing further damage.
7. Instruct the parents that monitor the serum bilirubin after discharge because rebound elevation of bilirubin can occur after phototherapy is discontinued. Furthermore, explain to parents that loose green stools are expected during phototherapy treatment. Parent care is almost for newborn babies. As people are running everywhere, thus they do not have proper time to care for their children. Most parents admit their children into child care and think that their duty is over. However, the parents must monitor the serum bilirubin regularly so that this can be eliminated from the child.