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Hypothyroidism is more common nowadays compared to before. Thyroid stimulating hormone that is more than 4.5mU/L is considered an indicator of hypothyroidism. The level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in the blood can diagnose it. Women are more likely than men to develop this disease condition.

endocrinologist, thyroid, HYPOTHYROIDISM

Hypothyroidism is the hyposecretion of thyroid hormones and is characterized by a decreased rate of body mechanics.


The main causes of this disease are because of radiation therapy, thyroiditis, some medicines such as lithium, genetic disorder, pregnancy and lack of iodine in daily meals.


1. Lethargy and fatigue

2. Weight gain

3. Weakness

4. Muscle aches and paresthesia

5. Intolerance of cold

6. Bradycardia

7. Constipation

8. Dry skin 

9. Loss of hair

10. Puffiness and oedema around the eyes and face


*Monitor heart rate and rhythm.

*Take a low-calorie and low-cholesterol diet.

*Encourage high-fibre diet and fluids which help to prevent constipation.

*Daily exercises such as walking, and jogging.

*Maintain a warm environment because of hypothermia.

*Administer levothyroxine sodium as per doctor’s orders.

*Check TSH level and follow up with an endocrine specialist.

* When chest pain happens instruct to report immediately.

*Do not eat or drink for half an hour after taking thyroid medication.

* It is better to take medication on empty stomach in the morning.

*Do not take iron and calcium supplements for a few hours after taking thyroid medication and also antacid medication such as a tab. Pan and tab omeprazole reduce thyroid hormone absorption.

*People need to eat iodine-content foods such as seafood, seaweed, iodized salt, and plants grown in iodine-rich soil. If you have hypothyroidism, you should consult with a dietician about your daily meals. So that, you can maintain your TSH level in the blood.

         In addition to medical treatment, there are also lifestyle changes that may help to manage symptoms of hypothyroidism. For example, getting regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet can help to boost energy levels and support overall metabolic function. Also, managing stress and getting adequate rest and sleep may help reduce symptoms such as fatigue and mood disturbances. Hypothyroidism also causes increased body weight, we need to reduce the weight for better health.


1. Brazil nuts: Brazil nuts contain selenium which is used when the thyroid converts the T4 hormone into T3.

2. Mushrooms: Mushrooms can prevent high estrogen levels in the body and restore thyroid function.

3. Salmon: Salmon contains omega-3 fatty acids. It is also the best source of iodine and selenium for making thyroid hormones.

4. Chicken: Chicken includes selenium which helps with thyroid metabolism.

5. Blueberries: Blueberries are the best source of antioxidants which fights free radicals and it helps with, hypothyroidism.


Hypothyroidism leads to some complications.

1. Infertility: The low range of TSH may interact with ovulation and it can restrict fertility.

2. Goiter: Enlargement of the thyroid gland called goiter. Large goiter needs to be removed by surgery. Goiter leads to difficulty in swallowing and breathing

3. Birth defects: Pregnant mother with high TSH levels or untreated thyroid disease can cause birth defects in babies.

4. Myxedema coma: Myxedema coma is a life-threatening condition because of an untreated infection. Signs and symptoms of this are hypothermia, hypoglycemia, hypotension, hyponatremia, respiratory failure and bradycardia.

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