Gestational diabetes mellitus is common in pregnancy because of unhealthy lifestyle and hormonal changes. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy. Gestational diabetes should be screened during the pregnancy period between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation through the 1-hour glucose challenge test. If the 1-hour glucose challenge test is abnormal, a 3-hour oral glucose test is performed. Most women with gestational diabetes return to normal blood glucose levels after birth. But these individuals have an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus in their lifetime. Cesarean section is preferred for some pregnant women because of neonatal hypoglycemia and macrosomia.
RISK FACTORS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS
The factors of gestational diabetes mellitus are the age of more than 35 years, polycystic ovarian syndrome, obesity, multiple gestations, previous pregnancy with gestational diabetes, pregnancy-related hypertension, gestations, and use of glucocorticoids.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS
Signs and symptoms of gestational diabetes mellitus are excessive thirst, hunger, frequent urination, urinary tract infection, glycosuria, ketonuria, blurred vision, Polyhydramnios, and large gestational age fetus.
MANAGEMENT OF GESTATIONAL DIABETS MELLITUS
1. Gestational diabetes mellitus can be treated by diet. Fruits such as apple, guava, black plums, pears, and kiwi contain fiber that helps slow down the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. Moreover, fiber-rich green leafy vegetables including spinach, broccoli, and lettuce are good to control diabetes. Apart from that, bitter gourd contains polypeptide which helps to lower blood glucose levels in your body. Whole grain such as brown rice and brown bread is recommended for gestational diabetes because of their high fiber and it aids to control glucose levels. Amala ( gooseberry) contains chromium which regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
2. If diet cannot control your body glucose level consult with an endocrine doctor. Oral medications and insulin help to manage your high blood glucose level. Insulin During the first-trimester maternal insulin needs a decreased dose. During the second and third trimesters, you need to increase the amount of insulin because placental hormones cause insulin resistance. After placental delivery, placental hormone level starts to decrease and low starts to decrease, and a low dose of insulin.
3. Antenatal exercise also aids to control diabetes
4. Consult with a diabetic doctor or nutritionist for your daily diet
5. Assess for signs of hyperglycemia such as increased thirst and dry mouth, blurred vision, tiredness, frequent urination, and headache.
6. Observe signs of hypoglycemia such as sweating, pallor, irritability, and hunger.
6. Monitor for signs of infection such as urinary tract infection, and vaginal yeast infection.
8. Reduce your stress because stress can increase your cortisol level which increases your blood sugar level.
9. Check your blood sugar level 4 times daily, if your take oral medication/insulin
Babies of a diabetic mother are at risk for hyperglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress, and hypocalcemia. How to control diabetes ? The baby of a diabetic mother may be larger than a normal baby. The fetus produces its insulin and pulls the mother’s glucose which leads to hypoglycemia in the mother so diabetic women need to check their glucose levels.